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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| January  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 19, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW
Diabetes mellitus and male infertility
S Omolaoye Temidayo, S du Plessis Stefan
January 2018, 7(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220978  
Infertility is prevalent in about 10%-25% of couples in their reproductive age, analogous to 60-80 million infertile couples globally. Of these infertility cases, 10%-30% are exclusively attributed to a problem of the male. Several diseases have been implicated as contributors to deteriorating male fertility and diabetes mellitus (DM) is included. DM, a chronic non-communicable disease, has been considered as one of the most appreciable health threats, as it affects 9% (422 million) of the world’s population as of 2014. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, which can result from the inability of the pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin or from the target tissue becoming insensitive to insulin. DM has been reported to influence male reproductive function through diverse pathways and mechanisms. The adverse effects of reactive oxygen species and successive development of oxidative stress that occur due to DM have been investigated and implicated by several studies. The products of non-enzymatic glycosylation are reported to be widely distributed in the reproductive tract of diabetic men. Additionally, DM has been implicated to impair the processes of male sexual acts. Data reported in this review were extracted from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus with diabetes and male infertility as the key search words. In light of the aforementioned, the aim of this review is to provide brief background information on DM as well highlight and explain the likely mechanisms of male fertility which DM impacts.
  14 7,678 938
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo
B Bharath, S Nirmalraj, M Mahendrakumar, K Perinbam
January 2018, 7(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220982  
Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo. Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0%) were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters. Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%. Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.
  9 3,892 484
REVIEW
Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines
Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Shabir Ahmad Lone, A Kumaresan, M Bhakat, R Kumar, Rubina K Baithalu, Ranjana Sinha, Adil Rasool Paray, Hanuman P Yadav, Sangram K Sahu, Ashok K Mohanty
January 2018, 7(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220977  
Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI)-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs) with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs) may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.
  6 11,159 918
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Platelet indices in evaluation of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss
Abeer Abdul-Rahman Al-Aghbary, Mohammed Abdul Wahid Almorish, Dikra Waheeb Mohamed Jaffar, Waiel Mohmed Al-Kahiry
January 2018, 7(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220979  
Objective: To explore the change of platelet indices namely plateletcrit, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume among patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Methods: The medical records of 45 women with a history of RPL and 45 women who gave birth without RPL were reviewed retrospectively from three governmental hospitals in Yemen. The personal, obstetric and complete blood count reports were analyzed. Results: Platelets’ count and indices were significantly higher among RPL patients when compared to the control and the receiver operating characteristic curve for each platelet index showed significant area under the curve, with higher area for plateletcrit followed by platelet distribution width and then mean platelet volume. While the multiple logistic regression analysis for all platelets indices revealed that the platelet distribution width was the significant predictor for RPL in this study. Conclusions: The use of platelet indices may help gynecologists in predicting high risk pregnancy (pregnancy loss) in the low resources areas in Yemen.
  3 3,619 480
Effect of water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) on semen characteristics and oxidative status in serum of male New Zealand rabbits under heat stress
A Walaa H Khalifa, Gamal A El-Sisy, Walid S El-Nattat, AAA Mourad, Nagwa Maghraby
January 2018, 7(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220981  
Objective: To estimate the effects of the water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) (DWE) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and serum antioxidants activities of New Zealand rabbits under heat stress. Methods: A total of 30 bucks of New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group 1 was treated as control group and fed on balanced commercial ration. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 10 and 20 mL of dates extract substituting water in the early morning before watering and fed on balanced commercial ration. This schedule was performed daily for 5 days/week, for an experimental period of 5 weeks. Fertility parameters such as reaction time, potential of hydrogen ion (pH), mass motility, individual progressive motility %, percentage of live sperm and abnormal sperm (%) were measured. Blood serum testosterone level, serum glutathione reduced, nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were also determined. Results: The daily oral administration of 10 mL DWE significantly increased the pH, the mass motility and individual progressive motility % compared to the control group. Although, the consumption of 20 mL DWE significantly (P<0.000 1) increased the live sperm% and decreased the abnormal sperm % compared to the other two treatments. The administration of date extracts (10 and 20 mL) had significantly (P<0.000 1) decreased nitric oxide and glutathione reduced levels compared to the control. On the other hand, it increased significantly the lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid and testosterone level compared to the control. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of date palm (10-20 mL) could enhance the rabbit bucks fertility and its health performance.
  3 3,178 452
Effects of reduced glutathione on Boer goat semen freezability
ZM Rawash, Ebtihal A Ibrahim, M El-Raey
January 2018, 7(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220983  
Objective: To evaluate the effects of reduced glutathione on the quality of cryopreserved Boer buck spermatozoa. Methods: The current study was carried out on five Boer bucks from which semen samples were collected by artificial vagina. After microscopical evaluation at 37 °C semen samples that fulfill the ideal requirements for extension were diluted in a tris–based extender including different concentrations of reduced glutathione (2, 5, 7 and 10 mM) and those without glutathione served as a control. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed post-thawing. Results: The current results revealed that post-thawing motility, viability and acrosomal integrity were significantly improved [(66.67±5.50)%, 168.30±18.59 and (12.75±2.45)%, respectively] when 5 mM glutathione was added to semen extender; especially as compared with the control [(40.00 ±2.88)%, 95.00±8.90 and (25.75±3.46)%, respectively]. Similarly, at this concentration (5 mM) sperm DNA damage, tail length and tail moment of cryopreserved semen were significantly (P<0.05) reduced [(2.32±0.27)%, (1.64±0.49) μm and 3.55±0.63, respectively] compared with the control extender [(6.66±0.84)%, (4.09±0.47) μm and 26.47±0.51, respectively]. Moreover, addition of 5 mM glutathione to buck semen extender significantly (P<0.05) increased total antioxidant capacity [0.51±0.07) mμ/mL] and decreased lipid peroxidation of cryopreserved spermatozoa [(8.68±2.72) nmol/mL] compared with the control [(0.18±0.02) mμ/mL and (24.92±5.80) nmol/mL, respectively]. Conclusions: The addition of 5 mM glutathione to semen diluent improve freezability of Boer buck spermatozoa through DNA protection from deterioration and oxidative stress reduction. Moreover, 10 mM of glutathione exerts cytotoxic effects on Boer buck semen.
  2 2,716 314
Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses
KM Mohammed, MA Kamal EL–den, AY Dahmoush
January 2018, 7(1):39-46
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220984  
Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses. Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A) goats with Damascus(D) was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females) produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1), weaning to 6 months (D2) and from birth to 6 months of age (D3) were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program. Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01) birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01) body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01) and D3 (P<0.05) periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01) than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01) than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01) heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth and weaning weights were positive for both Damascus and Ardi goats. Conclusions: Genetic program for Ardi goats through upgrading with Damascus is possible to improve meat production.
  2 3,806 424
CASE REPORT
Non-ischemic priapism in dog: Case report
TM El-Sherry, MA Abdel-Ghani
January 2018, 7(1):47-48
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220985  
Bulldog with unilateral cryptorchidism was admitted to our clinic suffering from a persistent erection for 2 d. The animal was left for the first time for breeding without observation. Penis was hyperaemic, oedematous with area of mucous membrane necrosis and swollen bulbus glandis. Doppler ultrasound was optimized to allow adequate recognition of blood flow sensitive for slow flow on the head, shaft of the penis and bulbus glandis. Penis showed unsymmetrical blood flow that started in the left side of the bulbus glandis, and continue to the shaft until the gland penis; whereas, the other half of the penis showed no blood flow. Using Doppler ultrasonography was useful for diagnosis of the blood flow pattern that was beneficial to give the appropriate treatment.
  - 3,014 237
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Genetic polymorphism and natural fertility in women
Fulvia Gloria-Bottini, A Neri, A Pietropolli, A Magrini, EA Bottini
January 2018, 7(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220980  
Objective: To investigate the cooperative interaction among five genetic systems (phosphoglucomutase locus 1, adenosine deaminase locus 1, acid phosphatase locus 1, adenylate kinase locus 1, and haptoglobin) concerning their effects on natural fertility in humans. Natural fertility has been evaluated by a model of age related differences between the distributions of types among pregnant women. Methods: A total of 137 nonsmoking consecutive puerperaes from the white population who had delivered their first born baby in the Maternity Department of S. Massimo Hospital of Penne were studied. The phenotypes of the five systems studied were determined by starch gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for the social science. Results: There was a highly significant negative correlation between maternal age and the number of genetic factors showing a lower maternal age at the birth of the first child, which suggested a positive cooperative interaction among these factors concerning their effects on fertility. Conclusions: In the relationship of mother-fetus, besides nutritional factors, genetic factors involved in immunological interaction of the embryo with the mother are of paramount importance. Haptoglobin and adenosine deaminase locus 1 polymorphisms are involved in immune reactions and our data indicate that genetic variability within these systems gives a more important contribution to variation of human fertility as compared to acid phosphatase locus 1, phosphoglucomutase locus 1 and adenylate kinase locus 1 that are mainly involved in metabolic functions.
  - 2,424 294