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Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system
Muhammad Zubair
July 2017, 6(4):145-150
Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condition of infertility in male. Antioxidants play an important role for eliminating of these free radicals. Vitamin E is one of the best antioxidants for the removal of oxidative stress in male reproductive system. Its use increases the reproductive functions and efficiency of male reproductive system. The deficiency of this vitamin leads to degeneration of germinal epithelium and Leydig cells in seminiferous tubules. The use of selenium and vitamin E has the synergistic effects on the male reproductive system. The objective of this review was to collect the beneficial roles of this vitamin along selenium on reproductive system of birds and different animals. This review will also collect the different doses along the beneficial roles on different parameters of male reproductive system.
  22,737 1,212 -
Uterine prolapse in buffaloes: A review
GN Purohit, Atul Shanker Arora, Tilok Gocher, Mitesh Gaur, Chandra Shekher Saraswat, Pankaj Mishra
November 2018, 7(6):241-247
Uterine prolapse is an emergency postpartum problem occurring within 24 h of parturition and resulting in death or serious complications in unattended cases. Poor myometrial contractions during the post-partum period and traction during difficult births are two postulated etiologies and low serum calcium appear to be a significant risk factor for uterine prolapse in buffaloes. Shortly after eversion the uterus gets inflamed and edematous and shock may ensue in cases with excessive bleeding. Prompt replacement of prolapsed uterus with sufficient care assures good prognosis. The etiology, risk factors, clinical findings and approaches for therapy of uterine prolapse in buffaloes are mentioned in this review.
  16,826 855 1
Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines
Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Shabir Ahmad Lone, A Kumaresan, M Bhakat, R Kumar, Rubina K Baithalu, Ranjana Sinha, Adil Rasool Paray, Hanuman P Yadav, Sangram K Sahu, Ashok K Mohanty
January 2018, 7(1):1-5
Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI)-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs) with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs) may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.
  14,714 1,101 12
Diabetes mellitus and male infertility
S Omolaoye Temidayo, S du Plessis Stefan
January 2018, 7(1):6-14
Infertility is prevalent in about 10%-25% of couples in their reproductive age, analogous to 60-80 million infertile couples globally. Of these infertility cases, 10%-30% are exclusively attributed to a problem of the male. Several diseases have been implicated as contributors to deteriorating male fertility and diabetes mellitus (DM) is included. DM, a chronic non-communicable disease, has been considered as one of the most appreciable health threats, as it affects 9% (422 million) of the world’s population as of 2014. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, which can result from the inability of the pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin or from the target tissue becoming insensitive to insulin. DM has been reported to influence male reproductive function through diverse pathways and mechanisms. The adverse effects of reactive oxygen species and successive development of oxidative stress that occur due to DM have been investigated and implicated by several studies. The products of non-enzymatic glycosylation are reported to be widely distributed in the reproductive tract of diabetic men. Additionally, DM has been implicated to impair the processes of male sexual acts. Data reported in this review were extracted from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus with diabetes and male infertility as the key search words. In light of the aforementioned, the aim of this review is to provide brief background information on DM as well highlight and explain the likely mechanisms of male fertility which DM impacts.
  14,533 1,119 20
Effects of L-Arginine supplementation on semen quality, testosterone concentration and testes histological parameters of Ross 308 breeder roosters
M Ahangar, S Asadzadeh, V Rezaeipour, A Zareh Shahneh
May 2017, 6(3):133-135
Objective: To assess the effects of dietary L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on testes histological parameters and semen quality of male broiler breeder. Methods: Twenty male broiler breeders at 37 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replicates each. The treatments consisted of 4 dietary levels of L-Arg (0.00, 1.35, 2.33 and 3.22 g/kg of the diet) and fed to birds for 8 wk. At the end of the experiment semen samples were collected by abdominal massage to determination of semen quality. The blood samples were used to determination of serum testosterone concentration at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, testes from each rooster were used to evaluation of their weights and histological parameters. Results: The results of the experiment showed that dietary L-Arg at 2.33 g/kg improved testes weight, semen volume and sperm forward motility in roosters (P<0.05). Besides, serum concentration of testosterone was increased in roosters fed 2.33 g/kg L-Arg (P<0.05). The results of testes histology indicated that seminiferous tubules lumen diameter, leydig cells, spermatides and sperm cells counts were greater in birds received 3.22 g/kg dietary L-Arg (P<0.05). However, the birds fed diet supplemented with 2.33 g/kg L-Arg had greater seminiferous tubules diameter, sertoli and spermatogonia cell counts than other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this experiment, it is concluded that dietary L-Arg had positive effects on reproductive traits in roosters.
  14,745 562 -
Male masturbation device for the treatment of delayed ejaculation: A case report
JE Rodriguez, JA Picazo, E Lopez
July 2017, 6(4):191-192
Delayed ejaculation is a rare condition with different etiologies. Majority of cases of delayed ejaculation have a strong psychological/behavior component. A 48-year-old male with a diagnostic of delayed ejaculation acquired was encouraged to make an exercise protocol using a masturbation device for 8 wk, the percentage of intercourse successful a month after finish protocol exercise was 81%.
  14,440 654 -
Infertility in China: Culture, society and a need for fertility counselling
Shanna Logan, Royce Gu, Wen Li, Shuo Xiao, Antoinette Anazodo
January 2019, 8(1):1-6
With a high rate of infertility, it is important to understand the context of fertility and family planning in China, to inform the necessity of supportive care. A literature review was undertaken to explore the societal constructs informing perspectives of childbearing, family planning and infertility, alongside Chinese considerations of fertility treatments, including assisted reproductive technologies and fertility counselling. In China, childbearing attitudes and behaviours are shaped by tensions between traditional cultural values of the filial piety originating from Confucianism, the history of strict family planning policy, the recent termination of one-child policy and the socioeconomic circumstance. For infertile Chinese individuals, the inability to meet these childbearing expectations gives rise to significant pressure and consequent psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms. Demographic factors such as gender, education, income and geographical location have been found to influence prevalence and degree of depression in infertile Chinese men and women. These difficulties are compounded by barriers of cultural acceptance, legislative restrictions and availability of resources for alternative options such as adoption and surrogacy. It is important that these fertility sociocultural factors are taken into consideration when assisting Chinese patients to access and utilise fertility treatment services.
  12,484 963 11
Sperm counts in Asian men: Reviewing the trend of past 50 years
Pallav Sengupta, Sulagna Dutta, Maiza Binti Tusimin, Tulay Irez, Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak
March 2018, 7(2):87-92
Objective: To reveal the trend in alterations of sperm counts in Asian men over the past 50 years. Methods: This study reviewed all the published reports to unveil the specific pattern of alterations of sperm concentrations in Asian men from 1965 till 2015. The time-related changes in sperm concentration were studied using linear regression analyses. Results: The present study elucidated the trend using the reports from Carlsen et al (1965-1990) and non-Carlsen studies published until 2015, on fertile Asian men. In the reports of Carlsen et al, no overall declining trend in Asian men (r = 0.509, P = 0.760) was observed during this tenure, but non- Carsen reports showed a significant time-dependent decline of sperm concentration (r = -0.754, P = 0.005) in Asian men. This present review also showed a mild time-dependant decline in sperm concentration (-0.44×106/mL/year, 95% CI: -0.65 to -0.23; r = -0.473, P = 0.040) which accounted for an overall 22.17% decrease in past 50 years. Conclusions: This study brings to the forefront that sperm concentration among Asian men follows a mild declining trend over the period of 50 years, and further studies addressing the causes of this decline are required.
  11,563 628 19
Effect of Vitex agnus-castus plant extract on polycystic ovary syndrome complications in experimental rat model
Amal H Hamza, Widad M AlBishri, Mona H Alfaris
March 2019, 8(2):63-69
Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
  11,237 830 5
Review on canine pyometra, oxidative stress and current trends in diagnostics
Rupali Rautela, Rahul Katiyar
March 2019, 8(2):45-55
Pyometra is one of the most important and common disorders in canine. The disease results in life threatening condition associated with septicemia and toxemia. The condition commonly occurs during luteal phase of estrous cycle, generally 4 weeks to 4 months of estrous cycle. The age, parity, breeds, administration of hormones are some predisposing factors of the condition. However, interaction between potentially pathogenic bacteria and hormonally primed uterus is believed to result in pyometra. The disease is initiated in the form of cystic endometrial hyperplasia, which later progresses into purulent uterine content following bacterial infection resulting in pyometra. The disturbance in antioxidant and pro-oxidant balance succeeding bacterial infection results in oxidative stress. The resultant stress further induces endometrial degeneration, immunosuppression and additionally aggravates the condition. An important clinical sign is malodorous, sanguineous or mucopurulent vaginal discharge with general symptoms such as vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, depression, anorexia and occasionally fever. Till date, ultrasonography is the best diagnostic method while radiology and serological test are also helpful. Recently, the estimation of inflammatory mediators (acute phase proteins and prostaglandin metabolites) has appeared as marker for diagnosis of the pyometra. Determination of levels of inflammatory mediators has emerged as an important diagnostic method because it can be helpful in prognosis of the condition. The pyometra can be best treated by surgical manipulation (ovariohysterectomy); however, hormonal treatment can be given in less severe cases which aimed at reducing the effect of progesterone on the reproductive tract. Together, provision of antioxidants could be helpful in disease recovery along with the determined treatment. In this review, incidence, predisposing factors, etio-pathogenesis, oxidative stress associated with condition, diagnostic methods and treatment are discussed.
  10,160 1,076 5
Sperm defects and infertility caused by bacterial infection of the reproductive tract in an adult male dog: A case report
Chike F Oguejiofor
September 2018, 7(5):236-238
Cases of acquired infertility in dogs often have poor prognosis and can be frustrating to clinicians in canine practice. In this case, a 3.5-year-old male Caucasian dog was presented for infertility evaluation. He had no record of successful breeding despite being mated with multiple bitches over a two-year period. Breeding soundness examination was performed including history evaluation, general physical and reproductive system examination, hematology, libido determination, and semen collection, evaluation and screening for infectious organisms. The presence of copious growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in conjunction with significant sperm abnormalities and leucospermia was applied to diagnose infertility due to a sub-chronic or chronic bacterial infection of the reproductive tract. Bacterial infection caused significant sperm abnormalities including low sperm motility, increased number of dead sperm and sperm with structural abnormalities such as detached heads, fractured necks, looped tails and coiled tails. Treatment was effected by administering ciprofloxacin orally for 4 weeks.
  9,642 516 -
Pregnancy outcome of day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: A retrospective analysis
Samaher Alfaraj, Fatima Alzaher, Sahar Alshwaiaer, Anwar Ahmed
March 2017, 6(2):89-92
Objective: To compare the pregnancy rate between day 3 and day 5 transfer regardless grades of embryos and number of transferred embryo. Methods: Retrospective cohort, a total of seven hundred and four patients met our inclusion criteria, with 411 had day 3 embryo transfer and 293 had day 5 embryo transfer. The patients who were older than 40 years old were excluded. Embryo transfer was carried out in all patients in both transfer groups. Results: Both clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate did not show any statistically significant difference between the day 3 and day five transfer groups. These were 44% vs. 45% with P=0.82 and 19% vs. 19% with P=0.99 respectively. An increase of miscarriage rate with day 5 embryo transferred compare with day 3 (12.0% vs. 4.4%, P=0.01), but no significant difference was found about biochemical pregnancy rate (P=0.52). Conclusions: Transferring embryo at day 5 may not provide any additional benefit over day 3 transfers to patients. In addition, it increases the risk of miscarriage. Further studies of this issue needed for confirming our findings.
  9,039 485 -
COVID-19 pneumonia in an Iraqi pregnant woman with preterm delivery
Hayder M Al-kuraishy, Thabat J Al-Maiahy, Ali I Al-Gareeb, Rasha A Musa, Zaid H Ali
0, 0(0):0-0
Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV2). Vertical transmission and clinical presentation of COVID-19 in pregnancy is still obscure. Additionally, the potential hazard of COVID-19 in pregnancy on the fetus and post-delivery risk for the neonate remain under investigations. Patient concern: A young-aged Asian pregnant woman with 28 weeks of gestation presented with fever, dyspnoea, headache, and joint pain with decreased fetal movement for about one week. Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Interventions: The patient was referred to the quarantine sector and was treated with chloroquine orally, intravenous fluid and other supportive treatment. Outcomes: After one week of treatment, the patient improved. Seventeen days after admission to hospital and at 30 weeks of gestation, she started vaginal preterm delivery of a viable healthy neonate with negative COVID-19 test for two occasions. Lessons: COVID-19 pneumonia during pregnancy presents with similar clinical presentation of non-pregnant women. COVID-19 pneumonia during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm labour without evidence of vertical transmission.
  9,179 154 21
Treatment of cows with clinical endometritis III as cows affected by pyometra-Non antibiotic treatment of severe clinical endometritis
Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi, Asghar Mogheiseh, Abdolah Mirzaei, Saeed Nazifi, Eisa Fallah
July 2018, 7(4):185-190
Objective: To confirm the efficacy of non-antibiotic treatment with prostaglandin F2 α (PGF2 α) in dairy cows affected by severe clinical endometritis in (30±3) days in milk. Methods: Cows with clinical endometritis 1 (n=399) were aligned into three groups randomly. The first group (n=115) received PGF2 α, the second group (n=84) received intrauterine infusion (lUI) of oxytetracycline 10% + PGF2 α, and the third group (n=200) received IUI. Cows were inseminated following estrus. The pregnancy status, parity, calving and artificial insemination season, ovaries with corpus luteum at the time of treatment, dystocia, body condition score and treatment groups were included in data analysis. Results: Total pregnancy rate was 40.1% after the first insemination and 94.2% after the third insemination. Overall pregnancy rate of treated cows with IUI+PGF2 α (84.5%) was significantly lower than the treated cows with PGF2 α(98.3%) or IUI (96%) (P<0.05). The first service pregnancy rate of inseminated cows in summer (14.3%) was lower in comparison with cows inseminated in spring (40.4%), fall (41.4%) and winter (51.7%) (P<0.05). Conclusions: PGF2 α could treat severe clinical endometritis in dairy cows with corpus luteum in comparison with other treatments.
  8,545 675 4
Thyroid hormones in male reproduction and infertility
Ahmed Alahmar, Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta
September 2019, 8(5):203-210
Thyroid hormones have been well studied for its relevance to male reproduction in the last few decades. They are considered as essential regulators of male reproductive functions and play vital roles in male gonadal developments. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism both affect testicular functions and influence neuroendocrine regulations over reproductive functions via the crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The alterations in the male reproductive hormonal milieu by thyroid hormones may lead to reduced testosterone levels and deterioration of semen quality. However, there are very few reports on the direct effects of thyroid disorders upon testicular functions and semen quality. This article aims to review the available literature to present a concise updated concept on the regulation of male reproductive functions by the thyroid hormones, and the possible mechanism by which thyroid dysfunctions affects testicular functions.
  8,217 579 10
Role of melatonin in male reproduction
Koushik Bhattacharya, Pallav Sengupta, Sulagna Dutta
September 2019, 8(5):211-219
Melatonin, conventionally accepted as a pineal gland secretion, is a neuromodulator whose physiological concentrations are regulated by circadian rhythms. Alteration in melatonin levels owing to circadian influences is a major regulator of reproductive functions in animal species that are seasonal breeders. Attributing to its antioxidant properties and capability to cross physiological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier, the blood-testis barrier as well as having almost no toxicity, melatonin finds high relevance in amelioration of male fertility parameters. Melatonin may affect male reproductive functions by influencing the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary luteinizing hormone, which are among the key hormones in regulation of male reproduction. It may directly act on testicular cells to influence testicular functions. The property of melatonin most essential for testicular functions is its ability to scavenge free radicals, thereby preventing testicular oxidative damage. This article summarizes the updated data on the versatility of melatonin as an endogenous rhythm setter, as an antioxidant molecule and its possible physiological impacts in male reproductive functions.
  7,445 664 7
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Current trends and future perspectives
Diego Rossetti, Silvia Di Angelo Antonio, David Lukanović, Tina Kunic, Camilla Certelli, Carmine Vascone, Zaki Sleiman
May 2019, 8(3):93-101
Among resources of mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord appears to be a rising source capable of differentiating into all germ layers, reaching and repairing lesion areas, and promoting wound repair, and it has also the capacity to influence the immune response. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be an optimal resource compared with other mesenchymal stem cells sources because they require a noninvasive recovery. All these characteristics allow their use in heterogeneous applications. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate tissues, stimulate angiogenesis, modulate inflammatory pathway signals and recruit endogenous stem cell. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress mitogen-induced signals and modulate the activation and proliferation of several immune cells, modifying lymphocyte phenotypes activity. In culture, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cellss show the capacity to create several tissues such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the different compartments of umbilical cord and processed by using different techniques. Clinical applications of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells include graft-versus-host disease, autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, gynecological disorders like endometriosis. Recent studies have shown possible application on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and neuronal degenerative diseases. This review is focused on the resources, molecular profiles, propriety, in vitro characterizations, clinical applications and possible future usage of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
  7,427 494 3
Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls
P Perumal, N Savino, CTR Sangma, MH Khan, E Ezung, S Chang, TZT Sangtam
November 2017, 6(6):268-278
Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls. Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6) were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management. Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05) among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation. Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.
  6,808 608 3
Biofertilizing efficiency of Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical composition of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo
B Bharath, S Nirmalraj, M Mahendrakumar, K Perinbam
January 2018, 7(1):27-32
Objective: To evaluate the effect of marine brown alga Sargassum polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo. Methods: Different concentrations of algal extracts (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 5.0%) were prepared and applied to the crops at every 10-day intervals under natural conditions. After 30 d, the plants were harvested to evaluate the growth and biochemical parameters. Results: Seaweed liquid fertilizers treated seedlings showed maximum growth in 3.0% concentration when compared to the untreated seedlings. Similarly, biochemical parameters such as photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids exhibited increases in 3.0% concentration seaweed extract. Decreases in growth and biochemical parameters were noticed in concentrations higher than 3.0%. Conclusions: Presence of micronutrients and growth regulating substances in the liquid extract help healthier and faster productivity of the crop.
  6,715 660 13
Cryopreservation of cattle semen using coconut water extender with different glycerol concentrations
Reda Ibrahim El-Sheshtawy, Walid Said El-Nattat, Gamal Abdel Daiem Ali
November 2017, 6(6):279-282
Objective: To investigate the effect of coconut water with a lone concentration and different concentrations of glycerol on chilled and cryopreserved cattle semen characteristics. Methods: Semen was collected from five mature cattle bulls, at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The ejaculates were pooled and evaluated for dilution processing. Tris citrate egg yolk fructose was used as control treatment for semen, while 50% (V/V) coconut water, 25% (V/V) bi-distilled water and 25% (V/V, 5% anhydrous monosodium citrate) to 20 mL egg yolk and three different concentrations of glycerol (4%, 6% and 8%) were used as coconut water (CW)- glycerol-yolk extenders (CWCG-4, CWCG-6 and CWCG-8). Extended semen was cooled and cryopreserved. Sperm motility%, sperm membrane integrity%, normal acrosome%, live sperm% and total sperm abnormalities% were recorded after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Results: The addition of 4% glycerol to coconut water enriched media (CWCG-4) revealed the most effective addition of glycerol on all parameters after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Conclusions: Coconut water enriched media with 4% glycerol addition is safe to be used as an extender in bull semen preservation because it is a sterile liquid. So, it can be used without addition of antibiotics to the extender, as antibiotics have to some extent hazardous effect on spermatozoa.
  6,726 640 4
Clinical diagnosis and surgical approaches of vaginal hyperplasia in bitches
Samaa M Galal, Mohamed Fathi, ST Ismail, MS ElBelely, Faten F Mohamed
September 2018, 7(5):220-224
Objective: To describe the breed predisposition, clinical diagnosis, pathological findings and the surgical approach through excision of the hyperplasic mass from the vagina. Methods: Twenty five bitches of different breeds suffering from a protruded mass from the vulva were examined clinically, blood samples were collected to ensure the phase of estrus that were determined by evaluating the exfoliative vaginal epithelium, and a histopathological examination of the hyperplastic mass was done after its surgical excision. Results: The current work revealed that the maximum value of estradiol 17-B was in Alabai breed while the maximum value of progesterone was in Pit bull breed. And Pit bull breed showed cornification and stratification of the vaginal mucosa with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and regular round nuclei. Conclusions: As the vaginal hyperplasia is a crucial gynaecological problem that affects different breeds of bitches, the current work provides a comprehensive diagnosis of the case and illustrates the surgical interference for its excision.
  6,878 487 2
Improvement of sexual behavior, sperm quantity and quality by Quercetin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic erectile dysfunction
Abdulaziz Al-Roujayee
January 2017, 6(1):6-12
Objective: To evaluate the effect of Quercetin (QT) on erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress in penile tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Two weeks after diabetes induction, QT was treated to normal and diabetic rats for 5 wk. Sexual behavioral parameters including mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post-ejaculatory interval, mount frequency and intromission frequency, were observed against stimulus females. Sperm count and their motility and viability were recorded. Serum glucose and testosterone levels were estimated. In penile tissue levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and glutathione, and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured. Histopathological changes were evaluated in a cross-section of penile tissue. Results: Sexual behavioral ejaculation latency, post-ejaculatory interval, mount latency and intromission latency were significantly increased while mount frequency and intromission frequency were decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with QT corrected the male sexual behavioral levels and also enhanced the inhibited sperm count, motility and viability in diabetic rats. Serum testosterone and penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were significantly increased in QT treated diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic animals. Penile oxidative stress biomarkers were corrected by the QT treatments in diabetic rats. Histopathological evaluation revealed damaged penile tissues in diabetic rats, which was protected following QT treatment. Conclusions: QT eliminated the diabetic-induced sexual impairment and showed significant antioxidant effects in penile tissue. Further experimental studies are recommended for QT therapeutically usage.
  6,811 381 -
Male reproductive hormones and semen quality
Sulagna Dutta, Pallav Sengupta, Suriyani Muhamad
September 2019, 8(5):189-194
Male reproductive functions are mediated by different hormones whose orchestrations remain a major research interest. The ‘master’ regulator hormonal axis is the hypothalamo- pituitary-gonadal/testicular axis which is led by the pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This, in turn, stimulates the anterior pituitary trophic hormones, the luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone act upon the testicular cells, the Leydig cells for steroidogenesis and Sertoli cells to aid spermatogenesis, respectively. This primary axis is influenced by an array of other testicular hormones, metabolic hormones, and different regulatory factors. These hormonal crosstalks influence the intricate testicular functions, sexual behavior and semen quality in men. Given the growing concern in the last few decades over the increasing prevalence of male subfertility and/or infertility mostly in terms of deteriorating semen quality, it is required to find its underlying mechanisms. In this regard, the endocrine regulation of testicular functions is of prime importance in the determination of semen quality and sperm functions. This review article aims to present a concise updated overview on the mechanism by which the key hormones integrate the male reproductive functions and maintain the semen quality.
  6,213 612 11
Etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections and the emerging role of bitter taste receptors: A scoping review
Menizibeya O Welcome, Abraham Jeremiah, Dennis O Allagoa, Senol Dane, Vladimir A Pereverzev
July 2021, 10(4):145-154
Reproductive tract infections pose an immense public health concern worldwide as over 600 million new cases are recorded annually along with several complications, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, preterm delivery, and neonatal death. Despite improved understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenic invasion, the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections is yet to be completely understood. Recent data has suggested a critical role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Here, we review the literature on current etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections and the role of bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract in etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role of microbiota disorder of the reproductive tract in reproductive tract infections. Several bacterial, protozoan parasitic, helminthic parasitic and viral pathogens have been identified as causative agents of reproductive tract infections. These pathogens subvert host defenses and activate specific architectural units of the uroepithelium such as Toll-like receptors, which recognize conserved motifs on the pathogens. The activated Toll-like receptors mediate downstream signaling, stimulating nuclear factor-κB, which in turn activates the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This pathway is also associated with recruitment of immunocytes to the site of aggression and release of proteinases, which drive tissue damage in the reproductive tract. Defects in detection of pathogenic components by the bitter taste receptors of the reproductive tract may play a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive tract infections. This review provides important information for identification of novel frontiers for the treatment of reproductive tract infections.
  6,613 203 1
Antifertility properties of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract as a contraceptive agent: Preliminary study of sperm proteomic
Irfan Yunianto, Nurul Ain Kamar Bashah, Mahanem Mat Noor
September 2017, 6(5):212-216
Objective: To investigate the antifertility properties of Centella asiatica L. ethanolic extract and identify the sperm proteomic changes in treated male rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control group (n=16) received distilled water and treatment group (n=16) which received 300 mg/kg of Centella asiatica L. extract for 42 d. After the treatment period, the number of implantation sites was recorded and the sperm proteomic changes were analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis. In addition, the expression of protein spots was quantified by MALDI-TOF analysis. Results: Centella asiatica L. extract resulted in low number of implantation sites in the treatment group (100.00±2.82) compared to the control group (183.00±2.14). The percentage of infertile male rats in the treatment group was higher (43.75%) compared to the control group (18.75%). Proteomic analysis showed the expression of protein spots identified in the treatment group decreased with 234 spots compared to the control group with 282 spots. Conclusions: The results revealed that there was antifertility activity in the male rats with the administration of Centella asiatica L. ethanol extract and the identified proteins could provide understanding on the adverse effect of Centella asiatica in male reproductive system.
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