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  Most popular articles (Since August 16, 2017)

 
 
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REVIEW
Effects of dietary vitamin E on male reproductive system
Muhammad Zubair
July 2017, 6(4):145-150
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170401  
Vitamin E is known as important antioxidant to protect the reproductive system. The free radicals are continuously produced in last few years due to metabolic and nutritional deficiencies. These free radicals are responsible for the production of oxidative stress in animal bodies. This production of extensive amount of oxidative stress caused the detrimental effects on the sperm and various other male parameters. This imbalance between the antioxidants and oxidative stress, leads to the condition of infertility in male. Antioxidants play an important role for eliminating of these free radicals. Vitamin E is one of the best antioxidants for the removal of oxidative stress in male reproductive system. Its use increases the reproductive functions and efficiency of male reproductive system. The deficiency of this vitamin leads to degeneration of germinal epithelium and Leydig cells in seminiferous tubules. The use of selenium and vitamin E has the synergistic effects on the male reproductive system. The objective of this review was to collect the beneficial roles of this vitamin along selenium on reproductive system of birds and different animals. This review will also collect the different doses along the beneficial roles on different parameters of male reproductive system.
  6,318 455 -
Effects of L-Arginine supplementation on semen quality, testosterone concentration and testes histological parameters of Ross 308 breeder roosters
M Ahangar, S Asadzadeh, V Rezaeipour, A Zareh Shahneh
May 2017, 6(3):133-135
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170307  
Objective: To assess the effects of dietary L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on testes histological parameters and semen quality of male broiler breeder. Methods: Twenty male broiler breeders at 37 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replicates each. The treatments consisted of 4 dietary levels of L-Arg (0.00, 1.35, 2.33 and 3.22 g/kg of the diet) and fed to birds for 8 wk. At the end of the experiment semen samples were collected by abdominal massage to determination of semen quality. The blood samples were used to determination of serum testosterone concentration at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, testes from each rooster were used to evaluation of their weights and histological parameters. Results: The results of the experiment showed that dietary L-Arg at 2.33 g/kg improved testes weight, semen volume and sperm forward motility in roosters (P<0.05). Besides, serum concentration of testosterone was increased in roosters fed 2.33 g/kg L-Arg (P<0.05). The results of testes histology indicated that seminiferous tubules lumen diameter, leydig cells, spermatides and sperm cells counts were greater in birds received 3.22 g/kg dietary L-Arg (P<0.05). However, the birds fed diet supplemented with 2.33 g/kg L-Arg had greater seminiferous tubules diameter, sertoli and spermatogonia cell counts than other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this experiment, it is concluded that dietary L-Arg had positive effects on reproductive traits in roosters.
  4,050 200 -
CASE REPORT
Male masturbation device for the treatment of delayed ejaculation: A case report
JE Rodriguez, JA Picazo, E Lopez
July 2017, 6(4):191-192
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170409  
Delayed ejaculation is a rare condition with different etiologies. Majority of cases of delayed ejaculation have a strong psychological/behavior component. A 48-year-old male with a diagnostic of delayed ejaculation acquired was encouraged to make an exercise protocol using a masturbation device for 8 wk, the percentage of intercourse successful a month after finish protocol exercise was 81%.
  3,828 264 -
REVIEW
Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines
Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Shabir Ahmad Lone, A Kumaresan, M Bhakat, R Kumar, Rubina K Baithalu, Ranjana Sinha, Adil Rasool Paray, Hanuman P Yadav, Sangram K Sahu, Ashok K Mohanty
January 2018, 7(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220977  
Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI)-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs) with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs) may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.
  3,457 452 1
Diabetes mellitus and male infertility
S Omolaoye Temidayo, S du Plessis Stefan
January 2018, 7(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220978  
Infertility is prevalent in about 10%-25% of couples in their reproductive age, analogous to 60-80 million infertile couples globally. Of these infertility cases, 10%-30% are exclusively attributed to a problem of the male. Several diseases have been implicated as contributors to deteriorating male fertility and diabetes mellitus (DM) is included. DM, a chronic non-communicable disease, has been considered as one of the most appreciable health threats, as it affects 9% (422 million) of the world’s population as of 2014. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, which can result from the inability of the pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin or from the target tissue becoming insensitive to insulin. DM has been reported to influence male reproductive function through diverse pathways and mechanisms. The adverse effects of reactive oxygen species and successive development of oxidative stress that occur due to DM have been investigated and implicated by several studies. The products of non-enzymatic glycosylation are reported to be widely distributed in the reproductive tract of diabetic men. Additionally, DM has been implicated to impair the processes of male sexual acts. Data reported in this review were extracted from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus with diabetes and male infertility as the key search words. In light of the aforementioned, the aim of this review is to provide brief background information on DM as well highlight and explain the likely mechanisms of male fertility which DM impacts.
  3,362 528 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Pregnancy outcome of day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: A retrospective analysis
Samaher Alfaraj, Fatima Alzaher, Sahar Alshwaiaer, Anwar Ahmed
March 2017, 6(2):89-92
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170208  
Objective: To compare the pregnancy rate between day 3 and day 5 transfer regardless grades of embryos and number of transferred embryo. Methods: Retrospective cohort, a total of seven hundred and four patients met our inclusion criteria, with 411 had day 3 embryo transfer and 293 had day 5 embryo transfer. The patients who were older than 40 years old were excluded. Embryo transfer was carried out in all patients in both transfer groups. Results: Both clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate did not show any statistically significant difference between the day 3 and day five transfer groups. These were 44% vs. 45% with P=0.82 and 19% vs. 19% with P=0.99 respectively. An increase of miscarriage rate with day 5 embryo transferred compare with day 3 (12.0% vs. 4.4%, P=0.01), but no significant difference was found about biochemical pregnancy rate (P=0.52). Conclusions: Transferring embryo at day 5 may not provide any additional benefit over day 3 transfers to patients. In addition, it increases the risk of miscarriage. Further studies of this issue needed for confirming our findings.
  3,350 206 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sperm counts in Asian men: Reviewing the trend of past 50 years
Pallav Sengupta, Sulagna Dutta, Maiza Binti Tusimin, Tulay Irez, Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak
March 2018, 7(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.228018  
Objective: To reveal the trend in alterations of sperm counts in Asian men over the past 50 years. Methods: This study reviewed all the published reports to unveil the specific pattern of alterations of sperm concentrations in Asian men from 1965 till 2015. The time-related changes in sperm concentration were studied using linear regression analyses. Results: The present study elucidated the trend using the reports from Carlsen et al (1965-1990) and non-Carlsen studies published until 2015, on fertile Asian men. In the reports of Carlsen et al, no overall declining trend in Asian men (r = 0.509, P = 0.760) was observed during this tenure, but non- Carsen reports showed a significant time-dependent decline of sperm concentration (r = -0.754, P = 0.005) in Asian men. This present review also showed a mild time-dependant decline in sperm concentration (-0.44×106/mL/year, 95% CI: -0.65 to -0.23; r = -0.473, P = 0.040) which accounted for an overall 22.17% decrease in past 50 years. Conclusions: This study brings to the forefront that sperm concentration among Asian men follows a mild declining trend over the period of 50 years, and further studies addressing the causes of this decline are required.
  3,285 230 1
Cryopreservation of cattle semen using coconut water extender with different glycerol concentrations
Reda Ibrahim El-Sheshtawy, Walid Said El-Nattat, Gamal Abdel Daiem Ali
November 2017, 6(6):279-282
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.217343  
Objective: To investigate the effect of coconut water with a lone concentration and different concentrations of glycerol on chilled and cryopreserved cattle semen characteristics. Methods: Semen was collected from five mature cattle bulls, at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The ejaculates were pooled and evaluated for dilution processing. Tris citrate egg yolk fructose was used as control treatment for semen, while 50% (V/V) coconut water, 25% (V/V) bi-distilled water and 25% (V/V, 5% anhydrous monosodium citrate) to 20 mL egg yolk and three different concentrations of glycerol (4%, 6% and 8%) were used as coconut water (CW)- glycerol-yolk extenders (CWCG-4, CWCG-6 and CWCG-8). Extended semen was cooled and cryopreserved. Sperm motility%, sperm membrane integrity%, normal acrosome%, live sperm% and total sperm abnormalities% were recorded after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Results: The addition of 4% glycerol to coconut water enriched media (CWCG-4) revealed the most effective addition of glycerol on all parameters after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Conclusions: Coconut water enriched media with 4% glycerol addition is safe to be used as an extender in bull semen preservation because it is a sterile liquid. So, it can be used without addition of antibiotics to the extender, as antibiotics have to some extent hazardous effect on spermatozoa.
  2,150 243 1
CASE REPORTS
Sperm defects and infertility caused by bacterial infection of the reproductive tract in an adult male dog: A case report
Chike F Oguejiofor
September 2018, 7(5):236-238
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.241208  
Cases of acquired infertility in dogs often have poor prognosis and can be frustrating to clinicians in canine practice. In this case, a 3.5-year-old male Caucasian dog was presented for infertility evaluation. He had no record of successful breeding despite being mated with multiple bitches over a two-year period. Breeding soundness examination was performed including history evaluation, general physical and reproductive system examination, hematology, libido determination, and semen collection, evaluation and screening for infectious organisms. The presence of copious growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in conjunction with significant sperm abnormalities and leucospermia was applied to diagnose infertility due to a sub-chronic or chronic bacterial infection of the reproductive tract. Bacterial infection caused significant sperm abnormalities including low sperm motility, increased number of dead sperm and sperm with structural abnormalities such as detached heads, fractured necks, looped tails and coiled tails. Treatment was effected by administering ciprofloxacin orally for 4 weeks.
  2,233 157 -
REVIEW
Uterine prolapse in buffaloes: A review
GN Purohit, Atul Shanker Arora, Tilok Gocher, Mitesh Gaur, Chandra Shekher Saraswat, Pankaj Mishra
November 2018, 7(6):241-247
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.246341  
Uterine prolapse is an emergency postpartum problem occurring within 24 h of parturition and resulting in death or serious complications in unattended cases. Poor myometrial contractions during the post-partum period and traction during difficult births are two postulated etiologies and low serum calcium appear to be a significant risk factor for uterine prolapse in buffaloes. Shortly after eversion the uterus gets inflamed and edematous and shock may ensue in cases with excessive bleeding. Prompt replacement of prolapsed uterus with sufficient care assures good prognosis. The etiology, risk factors, clinical findings and approaches for therapy of uterine prolapse in buffaloes are mentioned in this review.
  1,752 225 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls
P Perumal, N Savino, CTR Sangma, MH Khan, E Ezung, S Chang, TZT Sangtam
November 2017, 6(6):268-278
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.217342  
Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls. Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6) were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management. Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05) among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation. Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.
  1,671 238 -
Platelet indices in evaluation of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss
Abeer Abdul-Rahman Al-Aghbary, Mohammed Abdul Wahid Almorish, Dikra Waheeb Mohamed Jaffar, Waiel Mohmed Al-Kahiry
January 2018, 7(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220979  
Objective: To explore the change of platelet indices namely plateletcrit, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume among patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Methods: The medical records of 45 women with a history of RPL and 45 women who gave birth without RPL were reviewed retrospectively from three governmental hospitals in Yemen. The personal, obstetric and complete blood count reports were analyzed. Results: Platelets’ count and indices were significantly higher among RPL patients when compared to the control and the receiver operating characteristic curve for each platelet index showed significant area under the curve, with higher area for plateletcrit followed by platelet distribution width and then mean platelet volume. While the multiple logistic regression analysis for all platelets indices revealed that the platelet distribution width was the significant predictor for RPL in this study. Conclusions: The use of platelet indices may help gynecologists in predicting high risk pregnancy (pregnancy loss) in the low resources areas in Yemen.
  1,527 247 1
REVIEW
Melatonin as an antioxidant preserving sperm from domestic animals
Alfredo Medrano, Carlos F BSc Contreras, Fernando MSc Herrera, Alicia MSc Alcantar-Rodriguez
November 2017, 6(6):241-246
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.217317  
The role of melatonin on sperm function as well as its use as antioxidant for sperm conservation is analysed in this review. Melatonin has been included in the cooling/freezing media for the conservation of spermatozoa. Depending on the animal species, the best dose to improve sperm quality and fertile capacity is in the range from 0.01 mM to 3.00 mM. Since the work started on the use of melatonin as antioxidant for the conservation of spermatozoa (2011), a search for references was done on the subject using internet and our university libraries: journals, proceedings, thesis, etc. The search focused on animal spermatozoa, but a collection of papers on human spermatozoa was also carried out.
  1,451 312 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Improvement of sexual behavior, sperm quantity and quality by Quercetin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic erectile dysfunction
Abdulaziz Al-Roujayee
January 2017, 6(1):6-12
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170102  
Objective: To evaluate the effect of Quercetin (QT) on erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress in penile tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Two weeks after diabetes induction, QT was treated to normal and diabetic rats for 5 wk. Sexual behavioral parameters including mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post-ejaculatory interval, mount frequency and intromission frequency, were observed against stimulus females. Sperm count and their motility and viability were recorded. Serum glucose and testosterone levels were estimated. In penile tissue levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and glutathione, and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured. Histopathological changes were evaluated in a cross-section of penile tissue. Results: Sexual behavioral ejaculation latency, post-ejaculatory interval, mount latency and intromission latency were significantly increased while mount frequency and intromission frequency were decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with QT corrected the male sexual behavioral levels and also enhanced the inhibited sperm count, motility and viability in diabetic rats. Serum testosterone and penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were significantly increased in QT treated diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic animals. Penile oxidative stress biomarkers were corrected by the QT treatments in diabetic rats. Histopathological evaluation revealed damaged penile tissues in diabetic rats, which was protected following QT treatment. Conclusions: QT eliminated the diabetic-induced sexual impairment and showed significant antioxidant effects in penile tissue. Further experimental studies are recommended for QT therapeutically usage.
  1,526 162 -
REVIEW
Application of advanced reproductive biotechnologies for buffalo improvement with focusing on Egyptian buffaloes
Kamel M.E. Mohammed
September 2018, 7(5):193-205
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.241177  
Many countries in the world consider the buffalo as a priority animal for the future, since it plays a pivotal role in human food sustainability. Even though Food and Agriculture Organization has termed the buffalo as an important undervalued asset, this species has yet to drive the same attention as cattle. Egypt has a wealth of buffaloes dispersed in small herds all over the country, so the efforts that have been made to improve their genetic background show little return. Contrarily, other countries concerned with buffalo improvement have already used a data recording system in buffalo herds, allowing to achieve a much faster improvement progress. This review intends to survey the existing information on the application of assisted reproduction techniques to improve buffalo productivity. The strength points that may help to improve buffalo production are identified, and the obstacles hindering the genetic improvement of Egyptian buffalo are characterized. Therefore, this work will gather information related to buffalo and compile it for an audience of researchers and specialists to enforce international collaboration for the development of buffalo production. Also, it will open the way for people interested in developing a future vision for buffalo potential, which will be helpful to close or minimize the biological gaps of buffaloes’ researches.
  1,385 276 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Establishment of fetal age equations based on ultrasound measurements in cross-bred Holstein cows
Kanoknan Somnuk, Pim Wannapakorn, Waraporn Raksapol, Bunlue Kornmatitsuk, Sudsaijai Kornmatitsuk
July 2017, 6(4):186-190
DOI:10.12980/apjr.6.20170408  
Objective: To establish fetal age equations based on ultrasound measurements in cross-bred Holstein cows in Thailand. Methods: The animals were bred for 30-120 d before pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography with real-time B-mode and specify 5 or 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. Parameters examined included crown rump length (CRL), trunk diameter (TrD) and eye diameter (ED). Results: One hundred and two cows had been examined, 80 of them were pregnant and contained at least one measurable characteristic as defined in the methods. Regression analysis and curve estimation were implied. The most frequently visualized parameters were TrD (42/80; 52.50%) and CRL (41/80; 51.25%) whereas ED (13/80; 16.25%) was least frequently detected. In our study, the equations to estimate fetal age (indicated as Y) from CRL and TrD were established with very high correlation coefficients as follows, Y = 22.679+12.005 (CRL)-1.042 (CRL)2, R2 = 0.950, P<0.001 and Y = 14.583+29.878 (TrD)-3.759 (TrD)2-0.225 (TrD)3, R2 = 0.950, P<0.001. The equation from ED was Y=107.582-98.928 (ED)+61.116 (ED)2-9.221 (ED)3 but with very low correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.673, P=0.021). Comparing between our equations (CRL and TrD) and the ones embedded in the commercially available ultrasounds, the higher fetal age was estimated based on the same value of parameters (P<0.05). In conclusion, the most reliable equations created in our study were from CRL and TrD. Conclusions: Comparing with others, Thai cross-bred fetus clearly showed slower growth rate and thus, to use our CRL's and TrD's equations for estimating fetal age seems more reliable than to use the ones embedded in the commercial ultrasounds.
  1,455 140 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antifertility properties of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract as a contraceptive agent: Preliminary study of sperm proteomic
Irfan Yunianto, Nurul Ain Kamar Bashah, Mahanem Mat Noor
September 2017, 6(5):212-216
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.215931  
Objective: To investigate the antifertility properties of Centella asiatica L. ethanolic extract and identify the sperm proteomic changes in treated male rats. Methods: A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control group (n=16) received distilled water and treatment group (n=16) which received 300 mg/kg of Centella asiatica L. extract for 42 d. After the treatment period, the number of implantation sites was recorded and the sperm proteomic changes were analysed by 2D gel electrophoresis. In addition, the expression of protein spots was quantified by MALDI-TOF analysis. Results: Centella asiatica L. extract resulted in low number of implantation sites in the treatment group (100.00±2.82) compared to the control group (183.00±2.14). The percentage of infertile male rats in the treatment group was higher (43.75%) compared to the control group (18.75%). Proteomic analysis showed the expression of protein spots identified in the treatment group decreased with 234 spots compared to the control group with 282 spots. Conclusions: The results revealed that there was antifertility activity in the male rats with the administration of Centella asiatica L. ethanol extract and the identified proteins could provide understanding on the adverse effect of Centella asiatica in male reproductive system.
  1,368 211 2
Improvement in cryosurvival of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) sperm by altering freezing rate within critical temperature range
Jasmer Dalal, Ajeet Kumar, Pradeep Kumar, Mrigank Honparkhe, Vijay Singh Malik, Sumit Singhal, Simarjeet Kaur, Parkash Singh Brar
March 2018, 7(2):72-78
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.228016  
Objective: To optimize the cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen by altering freezing rates within critical temperature range (4 °C to -60 °C). Methods: A total of 20 ejaculates each from 5 Murrah buffalo bulls were cryopreserved using programmable biofreezer in 2 phases. In the 1st phase, 9 freezing rates were applied at -2, -5, -10, -20, -30, -40, -50, -60 or -4 °C/min (control) from 4 °C to -15 °C ; at -40 °C/min from -15 °C to -60 °C. In the 2nd phase, a fixed freezing rate was applied at -30 °C /min from 4 °C to -15 °C. Six freezing rates were applied at -10, -20, -30, -40 (control), -50 or -60 °C/min from -15 °C to -60 °C. The freezing from -60 °C to -140 °C were fixed at -50 °C/min in both the phases. Post thaw semen quality was assessed in terms of motility, viability, membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test), sperm abnormalities, and active mitochondria. Data were arc sine transformed and analyzed through one-way analysis of variance using SPSS software. Results: In the 1st phase, percent individual motility, progressive motility and viability were similar among various protocols. Percent hypo-osmotic swelling reactive sperm was higher with freezing at -30 °C/min. In the 2nd phase, percent individual motility, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling reactive sperm was higher with freezing at -50 °C /min. Sperm head abnormalities were lower at -30 °C /min in the 1st phase, but were similar among the protocols of the 2nd phase. Percent active mitochondria were higher at -30 °C /min in the 1st phase and at -50 °C/min in the 2nd phase. Conclusions: The optimum post thaw semen quality of buffalo bull could be obtained by applying freezing rate at -30 °C/min (4 °C to -15 °C) and at -50 °C/min (-15 °C to -140 °C ), followed by plunging of straws in into liquid nitrogen for storage.
  1,373 202 1
Homeostatic relevance of vitamin D in maintaining male fertility in human: Down–regulation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of anti-oxidative defense and steroidal hormones
Fahad Hussain, Arif Malik, Muhammad Saeed Qureshi, Muhammad Imran, Sulayman Waquar, Hassan Shafique, Zohaib Rana, Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain
March 2018, 7(2):56-61
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.228014  
Objective: To evaluate correlation between the levels of vitamin D and male infertility as well as to determine the efficacy of vitamin D in improving the male fertility by up-regulating the levels of testosterone and spermatogenesis. Methods: In the present study, 130 male patients (aged 25-70 years) having fertility defects were screened and 145 healthy individuals were taken as control. All human subjects were screened for 4-hydroxynonenal, isoprostane-F2α, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, vitamin D, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterones, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and nitric oxide. Results: The screening analysis revealed that the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone were lower in male infertile subjects compared to healthy subjects. Similarly, the levels of vitamin D [(17.17 ± 2.30) ng/mL] and calcium[(6.29 ± 0.31) mg/dL] were significantly lower in infertile groups compared to the normal healthy groups. Moreover, the study revealed that the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to the infertile subjects. Conclusions: Vitamin D exhibits strong relevance to male fertility by maintaining the levels of sex hormones (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone), up-regulating the antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and down-regulating the oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and inducible nitric oxide synthase species).
  1,367 207 -
REVIEWS
Role of preputial washing in reducing microbial load and improving bovine semen quality
Adil Rasool Paray, Mukesh Bhakat, Shabir Ahmad Lone, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Ranjana Sinha, Javid Ur Rahman, Zahid Bashir Khanday, Ziaullah Danish
May 2018, 7(3):97-102
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.233570  
Quality semen production remains the main focus and objective of semen processing laboratories throughout the world. Bacterial and other microbial contaminants affect the semen quality and hence the fertility, and also lead to reproductive disorders as well as lower conception rates and increased embryonic mortality, abortion and other complications in females. Microbial contamination affects the semen adversely, by exerting direct spermicidal effect, formation of reactive oxygen species, toxin production, adherence with spermatozoa, deriving nutrients and oxygen from the medium and thus competing with spermatozoa for the factors of growth and normal functioning. Despite hygienic measures, several ubiquitous and opportunistic microbes find their ways into semen during collection, processing, and storage of semen, and survive even during freezing. Stringent sanitary precautions are therefore required at every step of collecting semen and its processing. Preputial cavity is considered as main source of semen contaminating microorganisms. Flushing the preputial cavity with normal saline or any suitable liquid combination with antimicrobial activity, prior to semen collection reduces the microbial load and thereby improves the semen quality.
  1,304 214 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses
KM Mohammed, MA Kamal EL–den, AY Dahmoush
January 2018, 7(1):39-46
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220984  
Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses. Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A) goats with Damascus(D) was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females) produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1), weaning to 6 months (D2) and from birth to 6 months of age (D3) were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program. Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01) birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01) body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01) and D3 (P<0.05) periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01) than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01) than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01) heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth and weaning weights were positive for both Damascus and Ardi goats. Conclusions: Genetic program for Ardi goats through upgrading with Damascus is possible to improve meat production.
  1,328 187 -
REVIEW
Germline cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells, with the focus on Wharton's jelly
Hossein Yazdekhasti, Jalil Hosseini, Zahra Rajabi, Maryam Hosseinzadeh Shirzeyli, Fereshte Aliakbari
March 2018, 7(2):49-55
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.228013  
Previous attempts have indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a valuable source and candidate and new approach for tissue engineering and reproductive medicine. MSCs have this potential to be induced and differentiated in an appropriate in vivo and in vitro condition toward various cell lineages and then they can be applied in cell therapies and clinical applications. During recent two decades, various sources have demonstrated they are a great source for MSCs, including bone marrow, the human umbilical cord as well as Wharton's jelly. Due to discarding after birth, easily accessible cells and less ethical concerns, these cells have attracted more and more scientists' attention. Infertility and reproduction diseases have provided special opportunity to examine the efficiency of MSCs in this kind of application. Based on recent investigations, MSCs embedded in Wharton's jelly tissue are more appealing for cell therapies, especially in infertility treatment purposes. So, differentiation of MSCs embedded in Wharton's jelly tissue into germ layer cells for cell-based therapy purposes is now under intensive study.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) on semen characteristics and oxidative status in serum of male New Zealand rabbits under heat stress
A Walaa H Khalifa, Gamal A El-Sisy, Walid S El-Nattat, AAA Mourad, Nagwa Maghraby
January 2018, 7(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.220981  
Objective: To estimate the effects of the water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) (DWE) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and serum antioxidants activities of New Zealand rabbits under heat stress. Methods: A total of 30 bucks of New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group 1 was treated as control group and fed on balanced commercial ration. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 10 and 20 mL of dates extract substituting water in the early morning before watering and fed on balanced commercial ration. This schedule was performed daily for 5 days/week, for an experimental period of 5 weeks. Fertility parameters such as reaction time, potential of hydrogen ion (pH), mass motility, individual progressive motility %, percentage of live sperm and abnormal sperm (%) were measured. Blood serum testosterone level, serum glutathione reduced, nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were also determined. Results: The daily oral administration of 10 mL DWE significantly increased the pH, the mass motility and individual progressive motility % compared to the control group. Although, the consumption of 20 mL DWE significantly (P<0.000 1) increased the live sperm% and decreased the abnormal sperm % compared to the other two treatments. The administration of date extracts (10 and 20 mL) had significantly (P<0.000 1) decreased nitric oxide and glutathione reduced levels compared to the control. On the other hand, it increased significantly the lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid and testosterone level compared to the control. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of date palm (10-20 mL) could enhance the rabbit bucks fertility and its health performance.
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Effect of Vitex agnus-castus plant extract on polycystic ovary syndrome complications in experimental rat model
Amal H Hamza, Widad M AlBishri, Mona H Alfaris
March 2019, 8(2):63-69
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.254647  
Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
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REVIEW
Infertility in China: Culture, society and a need for fertility counselling
Shanna Logan, Royce Gu, Wen Li, Shuo Xiao, Antoinette Anazodo
January 2019, 8(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2305-0500.250416  
With a high rate of infertility, it is important to understand the context of fertility and family planning in China, to inform the necessity of supportive care. A literature review was undertaken to explore the societal constructs informing perspectives of childbearing, family planning and infertility, alongside Chinese considerations of fertility treatments, including assisted reproductive technologies and fertility counselling. In China, childbearing attitudes and behaviours are shaped by tensions between traditional cultural values of the filial piety originating from Confucianism, the history of strict family planning policy, the recent termination of one-child policy and the socioeconomic circumstance. For infertile Chinese individuals, the inability to meet these childbearing expectations gives rise to significant pressure and consequent psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms. Demographic factors such as gender, education, income and geographical location have been found to influence prevalence and degree of depression in infertile Chinese men and women. These difficulties are compounded by barriers of cultural acceptance, legislative restrictions and availability of resources for alternative options such as adoption and surrogacy. It is important that these fertility sociocultural factors are taken into consideration when assisting Chinese patients to access and utilise fertility treatment services.
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