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REVIEW
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-5

Sperm dosage and site of insemination in relation to fertility in bovines


1 Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India
2 Livestock Research Center, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India
3 Animal Biotechnology Center, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Shabir Ahmad Lone
Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana
India
Tushar Kumar Mohanty
Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.220977

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Low sperm numbers in artificial insemination (AI)-doses are being used widely to make the best use of high genetic value bulls as well as sex-sorted semen. Sperm concentration needed for AI to obtain reasonable fertility, taking genetic value of bull and numerous others components into consideration is one of the essential constituents for successful AI breeding program. However, low sperm concentrations in AI-doses lead to reducing post-thaw viability. The reduction in viability of low sperm doses may be affected by fresh semen volume, sperm number and seminal plasma level at final dilution. Reduction in quality and fertility of low sperm doses is one of the limitations for their use in successful AI programme. Sperm number per AI required to achieve optimum fertility is one of the main crucial things to AI industry, and numerous efforts have been made in this regard. Due to great variability among bulls, sperm number per AI could be a limiting factor in achieving acceptable fertility values. Fertility of low sperm doses may vary among bulls, and non-return rates (NRRs) with low sperm doses may be determined by fertility level of bull. On the basis of individual bulls, sperm numbers in AI doses needed to be adjusted to reduce the variations in NRRs among bulls. Utilizing high fertile bulls for low sperm doses with acceptable non-return rates (NRRs) may be a way to cover a large number of bovines under AI in countries like India. Deposition site within the uterine horn may alter non return rates following inseminations with low sperm doses. Following deep-uterine inseminations, acceptable pregnancies may be achieved with low sperm doses and even if ovulation side is unknown.


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